About agranulocytic angina

What is agranulocytic angina?

Acquired agranulocytosis is a rare, drug-induced blood disorder that is characterized by a severe reduction in the number of white blood cells (granulocytes) in the circulating blood. The name granulocyte refers to grain-like bodies within the cell. Granulocytes include basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils.

Acquired agranulocytosis may be caused by a variety of drugs. However, among the drugs to which a patient may be sensitive are several used in the treatment of cancer (cancer chemotherapeutic agents) and others used as antipsychotic medications (e.g., clozapine). The symptoms of this disorder come about as the result of interference in the production of granulocytes in the bone marrow.

People with acquired agranulocytosis are susceptible to a variety of bacterial infections, usually caused by otherwise benign bacteria found in the body. Not infrequently, painful ulcers also develop in mucous membranes that line the mouth and/or the gastrointestinal tract.

What are the symptoms for agranulocytic angina?

People who have Agranulocytic angina exhibit infection-related symptoms. Agranulocytosis symptoms can emerge suddenly or gradually. Early-stage symptoms include:

  • Chills and fever.
  • Increased respiration and heart rate.
  • Hypotension is a sudden drop in blood pressure that can leave you feeling dizzy or weak.
  • A weakened and worn-out body.
  • Gums that are bleeding and irritated, as well as a sore throat.
  • Throat and mouth ulcers that make it challenging to swallow.
  • The mucous membranes have a surprising bright hue, and the person may become pale.
  • He/she may have a generally poisonous look and is feeble, often almost to the point of falling to the ground.
  • Spleen and liver may get larger.
  • Frequent tiRedness and easy exhaustion.
  • Can catch numerous infections quickly.
  • Later symptoms also match with that of leukoplakia.
  • The onset of Agranulocytic angina is very slow; however, symptoms start to aggravate at a pacing rate once it reaches the chronic stage.

What are the causes for agranulocytic angina?

White blood corpuscles called granulocytes are a component of your immune system. Enzymes found in these cells may destroy bacteria and disintegrate potentially harmful chemicals for your body. Granulocytes come in three different varieties: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

  • Agranulocytic angina develops when neutrophil counts are dangerously low. Lack of neutrophils puts you at risk for recurring or chronic (long-term) infections. If neutrophil numbers stay low over time, your chance of developing a serious infection increases.
  • Agranulocytic angina is brought on by a number of pharmaceutical drugs. The illness can also be brought on by infections, other medical disorders, and chemical exposure.
  • Autoimmune disorders, including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Bone marrow disease and bone marrow failure disorders like aplastic anemia.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy is a process of curing cancer. However, during the process, a lot of cells are lost, cancer cells and even the cells of one’s body. This greatly reduces the immunity of the body.
  • Exposure to toxins or chemicals, such as lead or mercury.
  • Infections such as malaria
  • Antipsychotic medications
  • Prescription drugs
  • Poor nutrition and vitamin deficiencies.

What are the treatments for agranulocytic angina?

If a prescription medication is causing your symptoms of Agranulocytic angina, it's essential to stop taking the medicine and consult your physician.

Here are a few treatment options for agranulocytic angina-

  • Antibiotics: Your doctor will recommend antibiotics and other drugs to treat your symptoms if you have an infection. Antibiotics are the first-line treatment plan for agranulocytic angina. You might be kept on a broad-spectrum antibiotic by your doctor. However, it is not advised to consume drugs without a prescription or doctor's recommendation.
  • Immunosuppressive medications: If an autoimmune condition results in agranulocytosis, your doctor could advise using drugs like prednisone. These drugs reduce or inhibit the immune system.
  • A bone marrow transplant: It may be necessary if previous therapies are unsuccessful. You get bone marrow through this treatment from a donor so that you can make additional white blood cells.
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): Your doctor may suggest receiving injections of a medication to hasten the production of neutrophils, a kind of white blood cell. Filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or lenograstim may be recommended by your doctor.
  • Agranulocytic angina patients should take extra precautions to prevent infection. Avoid crowds, often wash your hands, and protect your face when you're out in public.

What are the risk factors for agranulocytic angina?

Agranulocytic angina or Agranulocytosis affects about seven in 1 million each year. Women are more likely to be affected by agranulocytic angina. People of all ages can get the condition.

  • Inheritance: Agranulocytic angina can be inherited and is more common among babies and children. The acquired form appears more often in adults.
  • Cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy treatments.
    •Suffer from autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
    •Exposure to certain prescription drugs, such as the antipsychotic medication clozapine (Clozaril®).

Video related to agranulocytic angina