What is cylindroma?
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare form of cancer that most commonly develops in the salivary glands or other regions of the head and neck. In some cases, ACC may arise in other primary sites, such as the skin; the breast; the neck of the uterus (cervix) in females, the prostate gland in males; or other areas.
The term "cancer" refers to a group of diseases characterized by abnormal, uncontrolled cellular growth that invades surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to distant bodily tissues or organs via the bloodstream, the lymphatic system, or other means. Different forms of cancer, including adenoid cystic carcinoma, may be classified based upon the cell type involved, the specific nature of the malignancy, the tissues or organs affected, and the disease's clinical course.
ACC tumors are characterized by a distinctive pattern in which abnormal "nests" or cords of certain cells (epithelial cells) surround and/or infiltrate ducts or glandular structures within the affected organ. These structures are typically filled with a mucous-like material or contain abnormal fibrous membranes (hyaline membranes). Such characteristics are apparent during microscopic evaluation of the tumor cells. ACC is considered a low-grade malignancy that has a history of slow growth, but tends to be aggressively invasive and to infiltrate nearby lymph nodes as well as the "sheaths" or coatings surrounding nerve fibers (perineural spaces). This form of cancer may have a tendency to recur later at the site where it first developed (local recurrence) and to spread to distant bodily sites, particularly the lungs, potentially resulting in life-threatening complications.
What are the symptoms for cylindroma?
The symptoms of Cylindroma include:
- Rare benign skin appendage tumors called cylindromas often manifest as skin-colored, reddish, or bluish nodule(s) that can be a few millimeters to several centimeters in size. Cylindromas may be present in addition to trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. Cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and spiradenomas often emerge after adolescence with slowly increasing and frequently many lesions.
- Multiple tumors may be detected in familial autosomal dominant cylidromatosis/Brooke-Spiegler syndrome or multiple familial trichoepitheliomas syndrome. Spiradenocylindroma cases have also been reported, showing traits of both spiradenoma and cylindroma in the same tumor mass, indicating a possible shared origin for the two tumor types.
- A cylindroma is a tumor of the dermis that is not connected to the epidermis. The lesion is made up of multiple nests that are shaped like jigsaw puzzles and are oval or polygonal in shape.
- A hyaline sheath that closely resembles a basement membrane surrounds and penetrates masses of epithelial cells. While separating the tumor from the dermal mesenchyme, this sheath does not impede the development or spread of the tumor.
- On the head and neck, cylindromas are typically discovered as small, single lesions. There is a considerable preference for ladies in their middle and late years.
- On the scalp and forehead, large variations, typically with several consolidating tumors (turban tumors), may develop.