About mucinous cystadenoma

What is mucinous cystadenoma?

Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare malignant growth characterized by the progressive accumulation of mucus-secreting (mucinous) tumor cells within the abdomen and pelvis. The disorder develops after a small growth (polyp) located within the appendix bursts through the wall of the appendix, and spreads mucus-producing tumor cells throughout the surrounding surfaces (e.g., the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity [peritoneum]). As mucinous tumor cells accumulate, the abdominal area becomes swollen and digestive (gastrointestinal) function becomes impaired. Pseudomyxoma peritonei develops at a variable rate, but may grow at a slower rate (indolent) than other malignancies within the abdomen.

What are the symptoms for mucinous cystadenoma?

Urinary symptoms symptom was found in the mucinous cystadenoma condition

Mucinous cystadenoma is a benign ovarian tumor, generally affecting women at the age of 30-40 years. It is mostly asymptomatic, and hence people fail to notice it, but sometimes some patients feel the following symptoms.

  • Abdominal distension, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, urinary symptoms, vaginal bleeding or discharge, and irregular menstruation. These are not conclusive symptoms because symptoms may differ on a case-to-case basis.
  • Pain and Swelling in the abdomen, usually in the pelvic region. The Swelling is because of the mass of accumulated fluid in the belly, called ascites. This fluid also causes increased abdominal girth.
  • Constant feeling of abdominal bloating.
  • Changes in bowel movements
  • Loss of appetite and the resultant weight loss
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding and
  • Fatigue

What are the causes for mucinous cystadenoma?

Several factors can contribute to the development of Mucinous cystadenoma. Some common ones that stand out after going through many case studies are-

  • Family history: It can be genetically inherited if the patient has any relatives with the condition.
  • Nulliparity and Infertility: According to some theorists, pregnancy offer a protective effect, maybe due to genetic alterations within the surface epithelium because of follicular rupture and subsequent epithelial repair or stimulation of ovaries by gonadotropins and local effects of endogenous hormones increase surface epithelial proliferation and subsequent mitotic activity. The absence or lack of these may make women vulnerable to Mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Early menarche or late menopause: If women menstruate longer, they experience more ovulation, which may also cause the condition.
  • Obesity: Excessive body weight has been shown to predispose to various diseases like Mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Smoking: Smoking rigorously can open the door to various health issues, with Mucinous cystadenoma being the most prominent one.

What are the treatments for mucinous cystadenoma?

Depending on the stage and severity, mucinous cystadenoma can be treated with upfront debulking surgery, staging and tumor reduction, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Other factors like age, medical history, symptoms, size of the cyst, and menopausal state also need to be considered.

  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or ovarian cystectomy with the removal of the adnexal mass is the best and one of the most common treatments. If the patient is post-menopausal, a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered. But, for premenopausal patients, the conditions allow fertility preservation with conservation of the normal-appearing uterus and contralateral ovary in apparent early-stage disease.
  • A surgeon may opt for drainage before or during surgery to avoid unfavorable perioperative events, such as fluctuations in respiration and circulation.
  • However, even after taking all the precautions, performing these surgical interventions comes with the risk of complications and fatal consequences like sepsis, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac failure.
  • So, nowadays, minimally invasive surgery is getting popular and has also proven effective in many cases. It can not only limit the abdominal opening to small incisions but also decrease the hospital stay.
  • You will be suffering from less pain and less blood loss.
  • You can return to work earlier.

What are the risk factors for mucinous cystadenoma?

Risk factors to keep in mind for mucinous cystadenoma:

  • Strong family history: If your family has a history of mucinous cystadenomas, the
  • Advancing age: Age is a very crucial factor in mucinous cystadenomas.
  • Race: This is a completely genetic thing, with no guidelines for prevention per se. Frequent checkups can help, though.
  • Infertility: Infertility is one of the major risk factors when it comes to mucinous cystadenomas.
  • Nulliparity: This, too, like infertility, is a major risk factor. It refers to a woman who hasn’t been able to give birth to a living baby.
  • History of breast cancer: This is self-explanatory, and the best way to deal with this is through frequent checkups.
  • BRCA gene mutations: This is a genetic condition which passes down from a mother to her female child. This gene might not always be active, but regular checkups are a must.

Video related to mucinous cystadenoma