About testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)
What is testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)?
The male reproductive system makes, stores and moves sperm. Testicles produce sperm. Fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland combine with sperm to make semen. The penis ejaculates semen during sexual intercourse.
Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.
Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35.
Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination.
What are the symptoms for testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)?
Pain, Swelling or lumps in your testicle or groin area may be a sign or symptom of testicular cancer or other medical conditions requiring treatment.
Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:
- A lump or enlargement in either testicle
- A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
- A dull ache in the abdomen or groin
- A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
- Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
- Enlargement or Tenderness of the breasts
- Back pain
Cancer usually affects only one testicle.
What are the causes for testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)?
It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases.
Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle.
Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known.
What are the treatments for testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)?
The options for treating your testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, your overall health, and your own preferences.
Surgery Explaining surgical options for testicular cancer
Operations used to treat testicular cancer include:
- Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. To remove your testicle, your surgeon makes an incision in your groin and extracts the entire testicle through the opening. A prosthetic, saline-filled testicle can be inserted if you choose. In cases of early-stage testicular cancer, surgical removal of the testicle may be the only treatment needed.
- Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) is performed through an incision in your abdomen. Your surgeon takes care to avoid damaging nerves surrounding the lymph nodes, but in some cases harm to the nerves may be unavoidable. Damaged nerves can cause difficulty with ejaculation, but won't prevent you from having an erection.
If surgery is your only treatment for testicular cancer, your doctor will recommend a schedule of follow-up appointments. At these appointments — typically every few months for the first few years and then less frequently after that — you'll undergo blood tests, CT scans and other procedures to check for signs that your cancer has returned.
Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, you're positioned on a table and a large machine moves around you, aiming the energy beams at precise points on your body.
Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. Radiation therapy may be recommended after surgery to remove your testicle.
Side effects may include nausea and fatigue, as well as skin redness and irritation in your abdominal and groin areas. Radiation therapy is also likely to temporarily reduce sperm counts and may impact fertility in some men. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor.
Chemotherapy may be your only treatment, or it may be recommended before or after lymph node removal surgery.
Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy.
What are the risk factors for testicular cancer (cancer of the testicle)?
Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include:
An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. The risk remains elevated even if the testicle has been surgically relocated to the scrotum.
Still, the majority of men who develop testicular cancer don't have a history of undescended testicles.
- Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer.
- Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk.
- Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age.
- Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in men.