UCD is characterized by a single enlarged lymph node or multiple enlarged lymph nodes in a single region of the body, such as the chest, abdomen, or neck. In most cases of UCD, individuals exhibit no symptoms (asymptomatic). Occasionally, patients experience symptoms due to the size and location of the growth. For example, a growth may form next to a vein, resulting in a bulge and possible obstruction in the involved blood vessel. Occasionally, individuals with UCD may exhibit a variety of symptoms including fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, weight loss, skin rash, early destruction of red blood cells, leading to unusually low levels of circulating red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), and/or abnormally elevated amounts of certain immune factors in the blood (hypergammaglobulinemia). These symptoms are typically seen in MCD. These symptoms usually disappear after surgical excision of the UCD lymph node.
Both HHV-8-associated MCD and iMCD are characterized by multiple regions of enlarged lymph nodes and episodic inflammatory symptoms, such as fever, weight loss, skin rash, destruction of red blood cells, leading to unusually low levels of circulating red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), and/or abnormally increased amounts of certain immune factors in the blood (hypergammaglobulinemia). Many individuals with MCD may exhibit an abnormally large liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly).
HHV-8–associated MCD is most commonly diagnosed in HIV-infected or otherwise immunocompromised individuals. Thus, HHV-8-associated MCD patients may experience additional symptoms related to their HIV infection or other conditions.